Phase in the process of the purification of waste water, during which micro-organisms are used to reduce the level of substances consuming oxygen.

This is the amount of greenhouse gases emitted during the process of creating a product or service, (see greenhouses gases).

Carbon dioxide. In the context of paper manufacturing, carbon dioxide is generated from the combustion of fossil fuels during the production of pulp and paper. The use of fossil fuels raises the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to the greenhouse effect and thus to the unwanted rise in atmospheric temperature.

Chemical oxygen demand. This measures the amount of oxidizable organic matter in the mills’ waste. It provides a measure of the spill prevention and control programmes as well as the quantity of organic waste discharged from the bleach plant.

Refers to the system whereby forests undergo an external auditing process that focuses on the environmental aspects of commercial forests. This includes the Pan European Forest Certification (PEFC) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification.

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-profit, multi-stakeholder organisation established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.

Greenhouse gases can be of natural origin (CO2, CH4, H2O) or a product of human activity (CFC, CF4, SF6, etc.). Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are the biggest cause of global warming today.

Life Cycle Assessment is an efficient and systematic method by which to evaluate the environmental impact of a product, service or process. The fundamental aim is to lessen the burden on resources and the environment throughout the product’s life-cycle, from the extraction of raw materials to disposal (landfill, incineration, recycling, etc.).

The successive phases in the life of a product, from the extraction and treatment of raw materials to final disposal.

Nitrogen. A non-metallic element that constitutes nearly four-fifths of the air by volume and occurs in all-living organisms. It is a constituent element in proteins and DNA.

Nitrogen Oxides. These are emissions that occur when fuels that contain nitrogen are burned. In moist air, nitrogen oxides can form nitric acid, which, in turn, is precipitated as «acid rain».

Phosphorus. An essential element for all living cells. Both elements are widely used in fertilizers and pesticides – they also occur naturally in wood. Excessive levels, if released into water systems can cause eutrophication and reduce the oxygen level in the water; this can ultimately lead to the death of most aquatic life in the affected water system.

Sludge generated as a result of treating raw water and wastewater. This consists primarily of fibres, fine particles and organic matter.

PCRFs are produced from paper which has been used by the consumer, collected, sorted and recycled through an industrial process.

Paper containing a defined percentage of fibre from waste paper and which has undergone the full recovery–recycling process.

Sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide occurs naturally in trace amounts in the atmosphere as a result of volcanic activity and biological decay. In the pulp and paper industry, sulphur dioxide originates from the burning of oil and the chemical pulping process. Sulphur dioxide reacts with rainwater to form sulphuric acid, a major constituent of acid rain.

An environmental management tool implemented by an organisation that, thanks to the principle of continuous improvement, allows them to reduce their impact on the environment on an on going basis.

Vegetable inks contain vegetable oil instead of petroleum oil, which is a non-renewable resource. They have an extremely low environmental impact.